complete a plan that adds up, we must rely on one or more forms of solar
power. Or use nuclear power. Or both.
234North American offshore wind resources.
235North America needs solar in its own deserts, or nuclear power, or both. To
read Google’s 2008 plan for a 40% defossilization of the USA, see Jeffery
Greenblatt’s article Clean Energy 2030 [ ]. The main features of this
plan are efficiency measures, electrification of transport, and electricity production
from renewables. Their electricity production plan includes
|10.6 kWh/d/p||of wind power,|
|2.7 kWh/d/p||of solar photovoltaic,|
|1.9 kWh/d/p||of concentrating solar power,|
|1.7 kWh/d/p||of biomass,|
|and 5.8 kWh/d/p||of geothermal power|
by 2030. That’s a total of 23 kWh/d/p of new renewables. They also assume
a small increase in nuclear power from 7.2 kWh/d/p to 8.3 kWh/d/p,
and no change in hydroelectricity. Natural gas would continue to be used,
contributing 4 kWh/d/p.
237The world’s total hydro potential...
–Global coastal wave power resource is estimated to be 3000 GW.
See Quayle and Changery (1981).
–Geothermal power in 1995. Freeston (1996).
238Energy crops. See Rogner (2000) for estimates similar to mine.
Further reading: Nature magazine has an 8-page article discussing how to power
the world (Schiermeier et al., 2008).