gas for cooking and heating by electricity (see figure 26.16, p200). To ensure
that surges in demand of 10 GW lasting up to 5 hours can be covered,
all the plans would build five new pumped storage facilities like Dinorwig
(or upgrade hydroelectric facilities to provide pumped storage). 50 GWh
of storage is equal to five Dinorwigs, each with a capacity of 2 GW. Some
of the plans that follow will require extra pumped storage beyond this. For
additional insurance, all the plans would build an electricity interconnector
to Norway, with a capacity of 2 GW.

Producing lots of electricity – plan D

Plan D (“D” stands for “domestic diversity”) uses a lot of every possible
domestic source of electricity, and depends relatively little on energy
supply from other countries.

Here’s where plan D gets its 50 kWh/d/p of electricity from. Wind:
8 kWh/d/p (20 GW average; 66 GW peak) (plus about 400 GWh of assoc-
iated pumped storage facilities). Solar PV: 3 kWh/d/p. Waste incineration:
1.3E kWh/d/p. Hydroelectricity: 0.2 kWh/d/p. Wave: 2 kWh/d/p. Tide:
3.7 kWh/d/p. Nuclear: 16 kWh/d/p (40 GW). “Clean coal”: 16 kWh/d/p
(40 GW).

Figure 27.3. Left: Municipal solid waste put into landfill, versus amount incinerated, in kg per day per person, by country. Right: Amount of waste recycled versus amount landfilled or incinerated. Percentage of waste recycled is given beside each country’s name.