TREV The Two-Seater Renewable Energy Vehicle (TREV) is a prototype devel-
oped by the University of South Australia (figure 20.42). This three-wheeler
has a range of 150 km, a top speed of 120 km/h, a mass of 300 kg, and
lithium-ion polymer batteries weighing 45 kg. During a real 3000 km trip,
the energy consumption was 6.2 kWh per 100 km.

Venturi Fetish Has a 28 kWh battery, weighing 248 kg. The car weighs 1000 kg.
Range 160–250 km. That’s 11–17 kWh per 100 km.

Toyota RAV4 EV This vehicle – an all-electric mini-SUV – was sold by Toyota be-
tween 1997 and 2003 (figure 20.43). The RAV4 EV has 24 12-volt 95 Ah NiMH
batteries capable of storing 27.4 kWh of energy; and a range of 130 to 190 km.
So that’s an energy consumption of 14–21 kWh per 100 km. The RAV4 EV
was popular with Jersey Police force.

Phoenix SUT – a five-seat “sport utility truck” made in California – has a range
of “up to 130 miles” from a 35 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. (That’s 17 kWh
per 100 km
.) The batteries can be recharged from a special outlet in 10

Modec delivery vehicle Modec carries two tons a distance of 100 miles. Kerb
weight 3000 kg.

Smith Ampere Smaller delivery van, 24 kWh lithium ion batteries. Range “over
100 miles.”

Electric minibus From
40 kWh lithium ion battery pack. 90 kW motor with regenerative brakes.
Range “up to 100 miles.” 15 seats. Vehicle kerb weight 3026 kg. Payload
1224 kg. That’s a vehicle-performance of at best 25 kWh per 100 km. If the
vehicle is fully occupied, it could deliver transportation at an impressive cost
of 2 kWh per 100 p-km.

Electric coach The Thunder Sky bus has a range of 180 miles and a recharge time
of three hours.

Electric scooters The Vectrix is a substantial scooter (figure 20.44). Its battery
(nickel metal hydride) has a capacity of 3.7 kWh. It can be driven for up to
68 miles at 25 miles/h (40 km/h), on a two-hour charge from a standard
electrical socket. That’s 110 km for 3 kWh, or 2.75 kWh per 100 km. It has
a maximum speed of 62 mph (100 km/h). It weighs 210 kg and has a peak
power of 20 kW.
The “Oxygen Cargo” is a smaller scooter. It weighs 121 kg, has a 38 mile
range, and takes 2–3 hours to charge. Peak power: 3.5 kW; maximum speed
28 mph. It has two lithium-ion batteries and regenerative brakes. The range
can be extended by adding extra batteries, which store about 1.2 kWh and
weigh 15 kg each. Energy consumption: 4 kWh per 100 km.

Figure 20.42. The TREV. 6 kWh per 100 km. Photo from
Figure 20.43. Toyota RAV4 EV. Photo by Kenneth Adelman,
Figure 20.44. Vectrix: 2.75 kWh per 100 km. Photo from