Figure 1.7. The upper graph shows
carbon dioxide CO2 concentrations
(in parts per million) for the last 1100
years – the same data that was shown
in ﬁgure 1.4.
Here’s a portrait of James Watt and
his 1769 steam engine.
The middle graph shows (on a
logarithmic scale) the history of UK
coal production, Saudi oil production,
world coal production, world oil
production, and (by the top right
point) the total of all greenhouse gas
emissions in the year 2000. All
production rates are expressed in
units of the associated CO2 emissions.
The bottom graph shows (on a
logarithmic scale) some consequences
of the Industrial Revolution: sharp
increases in the population of
England, and, in due course, the
world; and remarkable growth in
British pig-iron production (in
thousand tons per year); and growth
in the tonnage of British ships (in
In contrast to the ordinary graphs on
the previous pages, the logarithmic
scale allows us to show both the
population of England and the
population of the World on a single
diagram, and to see interesting
features in both.