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Sustainable Energy - without the hot air



Sustainable Energy - without the hot air
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Errata

All the errata in a two-page pdf file (April 2013)

Corrections to final published version (3.5.2)
Pages 2, 18   Apologies to Jonathon Porritt for mis-spelling his 
              first name.

Page 30-31  Note 29.  In the sentence, 

    If I said "the average use of energy for car driving
    in the UK is 24 kWh/d per person," I bet some people would
    misunderstand and say: "I'm a car driver so I guess I use 24 kWh/d."

  replace both "24"s by "13".
  (24 kWh/d/p was the average use of energy for all road transport. 
  Of that, 13 kWh/d/p goes into cars and motorcycles.)


Page 43   corn to ethanol (in figure 6.11)
          "0.02 W/m**2" should be "0.048 W/m**2".
	  
	  [Details: the power production of ethanol works out to 0.2 W/m**2;
	  unfortunately, producing the ethanol requires inputs
	  with a power _cost_ of 0.2 W/m**2, which cancels the power
	  produced. The only way to get net power from corn-to-ethanol is
	  to ensure that all co-products are exploited.   
	  Shapouri et al then estimate that corn ethanol production
	  has an 'energy ratio' of 1.24, which means that the _net_ power
	  production of corn-to-ethanol is 0.048 W/m**2.]

Page 47   add parenthesis: 
             band-gap is lost. -> band-gap is lost.)

Page 55   Map showing Kinlochewe and Bedford:  Kinlochewe is shown incorrectly.
          The correct location is about 60km further north.

Page 56   (note 56, line 8)  "has a per" -> "has a power per"

Page 62   line 14 from the bottom, ``0.14 million tons''
           should read ``140 million tons''.

Page 63   ``Denmark, where windmills generate
           9% of the electricity.''
 should read
          ``Denmark, where windmills generate
          19% of the electricity.''
  [Danish wind production in 2008 was 3.4\,kWh/d/p;
  their total gross electricity production was 18\,kWh/d/p.  -source]
	  
Page 75   Last line, "5%" should read "10%".
	  
Page 81        Why are there two high tides and two low tides per day?
 Well, if the earth were a perfect sphere, a smooth billiard ball covered by oceans,...
 ...  Two humps of water cannot whoosh round the earth once per day because
 the continents get in the way.
       →  Why are there, in many places in the world, two high tides and two low tides per day? 
 Well, if the earth were a perfect sphere, a smooth billiard ball covered by 
 extremely deep oceans,...
 ... Two humps of water cannot whoosh round the earth once per day because
 the oceans are too shallow and the continents get in the way.
	  
Page 85   In the map of Northern Ireland the placename "Downpatrick"
              is missing its first letter.

Page 120  trolleybuses consume	      
              270 kWh per vehicle-km
	  should read    
              270 kWh per 100 vehicle-km 

Page 131 "hydrogen gradually leaks out of any practical container. If you park
    your hydrogen car at the railway station with a full tank and come back a
    week later, you should expect to find most of the hydrogen has gone."
 is incorrect and  should be replaced by: 
    "hydrogen gradually boils off from  cryogenic tanks to keep them cold.
    If you park a cryogenic hydrogen car at the railway station with
    a full tank and come back two or three weeks
    later, you should expect to find most of the hydrogen has gone."


Page 133  "Rijnsdam" should read "Rijndam"

Page 153  "Scandanavia" should read "Scandinavia"

Page 167  "The nuclear decommissioning authority has an annual budget
          of 2 billion."  In fact this is to clean up not only 
          the civilian nuclear power stations but also the military 
          nuclear-bomb-making facilities at Sellafield. The lion's share of 
          the money is thus cleaning up military mess, not 
          civilian-power mess. This means I have overestimated 
          the cost per kWh of cleaning up old civilian nuclear power.
          
Page 169-170  "after 1000 years, the radioactivity of the
              high-level waste is about the same as that of uranium ore." 
                      →
    "if we reprocess the waste, separating off the uranium
    and plutonium for use in new nuclear fuel, then 
    after 1000 years, the radioactivity of the
    high-level waste is about the same as that of uranium ore."

Page 181  Figure 25.8, caption:
  "one-third-filled" should read "one-half-filled".

Page 192  Table 26.7. Columns 2 and 3: volumes and depths are wrong.
           All volumes (40, 40, 100...) and depths (20, 10, 20...)
           should be doubled (to 80, 80, 200... and 40, 20, 40... 
           respectively).

Page 199  Figure 26.13, last sentence of caption:
   "reduced" should read "reduced from".

Page 204  The red box marked Transport (20 kWh/d)
          and the adjacent blue box marked Electricity (18 kWh/d)
          were both accidentally misdrawn 10% too tall.

Page 205  paragraph 2, last line, 
              "2 kWh/d/p of solar hot water,"
            should be 
              "1 kWh/d/p of solar hot water,"

Page 206  fig 27.2  Teeside should be Teesside

Page 207  Last paragraph, fourth line:
   Waste incineration: "1.3 kWh/d/p" should read "1.1 kWh/d/p".

Page 217  "the cost of decommissioning the UK's nuclear power stations."
        →
          "the cost of decommissioning the UK's nuclear power stations
           and nuclear-weapon factories."

Page 232  "Scandanavia" should read "Scandinavia"

Page 234   "250 kWh/d per day" should read "250 kWh per day".

Page 238    paragraph 2: Brazilian sugarcane
 -    See erratum for page 284, below.

Page 241  Figure 31.2's discussion of the amount of carbon in the atmosphere
  should have clarified that the amount shown (600 Gt) is the
  pre-industrial
  amount. Since 1850, the amount of carbon in the atmosphere
  has increased to roughly 800 Gt.

Page 246  To pulverized the rocks → To pulverize the rocks

Page 260  The numeric value of the speed at which a car's rolling resistance is
  equal to air resistance is incorrect.
  "7 m/s = 16 miles per hour"   should be replaced by
  "13 m/s = 29 miles per hour". 
	        
Page 263  Fig B.1: force 7, 31 km/h  →  58 km/h
	        
Page 281  line 2: depends only  → depends only on

Page 284   Bioethanol section: "0.02 W/m**2" should be "0.2 W/m**2".

	   To make this section more informative I would rewrite
	   it thus:

	    1 acre produces 122 bushels of corn per year, which makes
 122 x 2.6 US gallons of ethanol, which at 84000 BTU per gallon would
 mean a power per unit area of {0.2 W/m^2}; however, the energy
 inputs required to process the corn into ethanol amount to
 83,000 BTU per gallon; so 99% of the energy produced is used up by
 the processing, and the net power per unit area is about
 {0.002 W/m^2}.  The only way to get significant net power from the
 corn-to-ethanol process is to ensure that all co-products are
 exploited; including the energy in the co-products, the net power per
 unit area is about 0.05 W/m^2.


 Page 285   End of paragraph 1:
  230 square metres ... roughly 6% ...''
      → 
  100 square metres ... roughly 3% ...''.


Page 286   If 2800\,m^2 of Britain (that's all agricultural
           land) ...
      → 
           If 2800\,m^2 per person of Britain (that's all agricultural
	   land) ...

Page 298, 299   The top line of page 298 gives 6.6 W/m^2 as
                the total power per unit area
                of the Heatkeeper house. This is incorrect. 6.6 W/m^2 is the heating
		power only. The total power per unit area is 12.2 W/m^2.
		This error is repeated in figure E.12.

		[Incidentally the equivalent breakdown of power
		consumption in my house, "after",
		is 6.2 W/m^2 of gas and 7.1 W/m^2 total.]

Page 299 Another problem with figure E.12 is that the PassivHaus standards
	 use a different convention for defining power: power is
	 measured in terms of "primary energy consumption", which
	 requires knowledge of the sources of electricity and fuel and
	 of conversion efficiencies.	 This means that the PassivHaus
	 standards are actually more stringent than the figure shows; though
	 exactly how much more stringent depends on the fuel mix.

Page 300   Figure E.13: "Text" should read
         "Tout",   for consistency with the caption.

Page 316  The equation number (G.10) is missing from the equation on this
          page.	   

Page 324  line 22    "(10 kWh/d per person)" should read "(10 kWh per kg)"

Page 328  line 6
    ``Internationale" should read ``International".

Page 353  Schlaich, J.:  These bibliography entries both
             have errors. Correct bib entries are:

    Schlaich J, Bergermann R, Schiel W, and Weinrebe G (2005).
    "Design of Commercial Solar Updraft Tower Systems -
    Utilization of Solar Induced Convective Flows for Power Generation".
    Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 127 (1): 117-124. doi:10.1115/1.1823493.

        Schlaich J, Schiel W (2001),
        "Solar Chimneys", in RA Meyers (ed),
         Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology,
         3rd Edition, Academic Press, London. ISBN 0-12-227410-5.
         http://www.solarmillennium.de/pdf/SolarCh.pdf	 
[To report other errata please use metafaq]

Thanks to Vince O'Farrell, Tim Stone, François-Marie Lefevere, Martin Zeidler, Jim Smith, Jeanne Warren, Michael Worstall, Richard Weightman, Dankrad Feist, Iztok Tiselj, Alwyn Eades, Rajesh Panjwani, Erik Gaal, Craig Embleton, Bruce Heagerty, Patrick Wauthia, and Tim Paine.


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